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An inverse problem is the task that often occurs in many branches of science and mathematics where the values of some model parameter(s) must be obtained from the observed data.
The inverse problem can be formulated as follows:
Data → Model parameters
The transformation from data to model parameters is a result of the interaction of a physical system, e.g. the Earth, the atmosphere, gravity etc. Inverse problems arise for example in geophysics, medical imaging (such as computed axial tomography), remote sensing, ocean acoustic tomography, nondestructive testing, and astronomy.